THE NATURAL LANDSCAPE AS A DECISIVE FACTOR IN STRUCTURING URBAN AND ARCHITECTURAL THE HISTORICAL CENTER OF SÃO LUÍS, MARANHÃO, BRAZIL
This work aims to establish a parallel between the urban built landscape of São Luís historic center in Maranhão and the natural environment in which it was inserted. It will seek to analyze the landscape’s natural system, the cultural heritage built and the interaction between those elements. During the study, the topography will be emphasized as one of the elements responsible for São Luís historical Center urban network formation and further development and also for the configuration of its architecture which formed new typologies such as the Sobrados. It is also discussed the infrastructure works relevance that sought to overcome the natural terrain constraints, essential for the functioning of a city whose economy was based on port trade. As a consequence of the city growth, the natural factors imposed the creation of solutions that would support the historical urban fabric expansion such as the bridges over the Anil River and the landfill and the dam over Bacanga River, elements that were once limiting the urban configuration of the city of São Luís.
Keywords: landscape, historic center, São Luís, urbanism.Artigo